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  • 奶牛被限制在又硬又湿又有腐蚀性地面上

  • 奶牛休息的环境条件差

  • 牛蹄接触潮湿的粪便时间过长

  • 营养管理不善导致瘤胃酸中毒

  • 地面太滑

  • 发现和治疗不及时

  • 修蹄技术和治疗方案不合理

  • 基因

  • 感染压力大